Historical Development of Modern Feudalism:
The TRUTH about your status as a slave in America
(by unknowingly volunteering)
from Paul Andrew Mitchell
Since 1933 you and all other Americans have been pledged for the debt of the UNITED STATES owed to international bankers, most of whom are foreign to our country. Your credit, labor, productivity and property have been used and is now being used as collateral by the incorporated UNITED STATES OF AMERICA without your knowledge or consent. This is legal until you take back your implied consent by a special, lawful process.
In fact, you are unknowingly volunteering to be chattel for a mortgage held by financiers from the founding of this nation. Perhaps you infer that the name on the tax statement is yours and so you respond as though it were. This is voluntary servitude. To make this servitude legal it was necessary to "cut a hole in the fence." No matter that the escape route is hidden, obscured by legal brambles to make escape difficult. That it is not used presumes consent. It is not impossible, just seemingly difficult and even implausible. Your status as a subject is based upon a presumption that if you did not wish to be so encumbered you would use the law to do something about it. As long as you do not use the escape route provided by law it is presumed that you are content to "remain in the pasture and be milked and used as chattel." This word has the same root as the word, "cattle." Do you get the picture?
Can such a premise be true? It seems totally out of step with everything you and I have ever known about our world, our nation, our government and our relationship to it! Our parents never behaved as though they we were chattel. They dutifully paid their taxes, voted in elections, waved an American flag on the 4th of July. Our teachers taught us about our history, our Declaration of Independence and Constitution, our Revolutionary War, how we fought the greatest army and navy the world had ever seen at the time. Nowhere in our history classes did we encounter any such premise of subjection to a central government that rules our lives. Our civics teacher never told us anything about this. Nothing in our world even hinted that we were subjects to a highly centralized government. Surely this could be true of other peoples, but not of us! For most people this cannot be. The truth cannot be heard because it is too discordant with our entire experience.
And yet we can document that George Washington did not chop down a cherry tree, Lincoln did not free the slaves (they became subjects of the Federal District, the District of Columbia), The War with Mexico was begun by General Zachary Taylor's provocations along the Nueces River, the battleship Maine blew up from the inside, Woodrow Wilson knew that the Lusitania was carrying US munitions to the war in Europe and would be sunk, Franklin D. Roosevelt had maneuvered the Japanese into an attack on Pearl Harbor and had cut fuel shipments to the Pacific fleet to ensure the presence of enough old ships to offer a tempting target, Truman knew that there were other good alternatives to an invasion of Japan and did not need to drop the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Roosevelt knew about the NAZI concentration camps, LBJ knew that there was no attack on the Maddox and Turner Joy in the Gulf of Tonkin when he asked for a Congressional Resolution to attack North Vietnam, and the US government had been warned by numerous documented sources that there would be an attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. All of this is from documented historical sources. Yet we continue to believe the myths that are in our histories, our movies, our mainstream media and our mass consciousness. John F Kennedy warned us that,"The great enemy of the Truth is very often not the lie - deliberate, contrived, and dishonest - but the myth - persistent, persuasive and realistic."
You will probably find it hard to accept that you have been living in an illusion for your whole life. Much of what you believe is an illusion and you will only find your freedom when you can allow yourself to look behind the veils of illusion to see Reality. WHO you are is far greater than "what" you perceive yourself to be. When you have the courage to stand face-to-face with the illusion and call it what it is, you will have stepped through the most difficult task set before you on your Earth Journey. There IS a way out! But the only way out is through—through understanding how we came to this predicament and following a precise formula to obtain your sovereignty. We have been warned repeatedly throughout our history, but we weren't listening very closely. Now we might have one more chance to take back our power and our sovereignty.
The nature of the conspiracy to defraud can be best understood in comments by one of the major conspirators in the triumph of establishing the Federal Reserve, "Colonel" Edward Mandell House, who is purported to have said this in a private meeting with President Woodrow Wilson:
"[Very] soon, every American will be required to register their biological property in a national system designed to keep track of the people and that will operate under the ancient system of pledging. By such methodology, we can compel people to submit to our agenda, which will effect our security as a chargeback for our fiat paper currency. Every American will be forced to register or suffer being unable to work and earn a living. They will be our chattel, and we will hold the security interest over them forever, by operation of the law merchant under the scheme of secured transactions."
Americans, by unknowingly or unwittingly delivering the bills of lading to us will be rendered bankrupt and insolvent, forever to remain economic slaves through taxation, secured by their pledges. They will be stripped of their rights and given a commercial value designed to make us a profit and they will be none the wiser, for not one man in a million could ever figure our plans and, if by accident one or two should figure it out, we have in our arsenal plausible deniability. After all, this is the only logical way to fund government, by floating liens and debt to the registrants in the form of benefits and privileges. This will inevitably reap to us huge profits beyond our wildest expectations and leave every American a contributor to this fraud which we will call `Social Insurance.' Without realizing it, every American will insure us for any loss we may incur and in this manner, every American will unknowingly be our servant, however begrudgingly. The people will become helpless and without any hope for their redemption and, we will employ the high office of the President of our dummy corporation to foment this plot against America."
We now know how to respond to this treasonous fraud. All my life I've looked for the roots of war, injustice and oppression because if we can find the basis of the rampant injustice in the world, we could relieve enormous struggle and suffering. I've wondered at how little the Constitution seemed to affect the courts and how often the truth was buried in silence. Mostly I saw greed and heartlessness in a power struggle played out in politics. But I didn't realize that the game had been played in secret throughout American history. And ultimately, it is a game of monetary policy and politics…. with a spiritual component.
Like you, I've watched and participated in the American scene for many years. I've written many letters to the editor, congressmen, senators, presidents, distributed campaign literature to precincts, represented my precinct at county conventions, served food at Loaves and Fishes, planted flowers at the feet of police threatening to arrest those who had taken over HUD homes designated for the homeless, worked with Welfare Moms, served as chairman of church social ministry, fasted, spoke to churches on social justice, supported the protestors at Honeywell demonstrations against the manufacture of cluster bombs, arrested for a war toy protest, booked, finger-printed, arraigned, marched in protest of the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the attacks on Serbia and Kosovo.
A Peak into the Mind of a Tory
In 1999 I watched in utter amazement as the Supreme Court of the United States overturned the Florida State Supreme Court's decision to proceed with a recount of the contested ballots and the Eleventh District Court decision to uphold the decision of the Florida court. In Orwellian doublespeak, Antonin Scalia wrote on Saturday, December 9, 1999:
"the counting of the votes that are of questionable legality does in my view threaten irreparable harm to [Bush], and to the country, by casting a cloud upon which he claims to be the legitimacy of his election. Count first, and rule upon legality afterwards, is not a recipe for producing election results that have the public acceptance democratic stability requires."
It was a brazen and Orwellian declaration. What American who believes in democracy could claim that something was wrong with counting votes "first"? What American who believes in democracy could declare one candidate the winner and protect him from "irreparable harm" if a vote count showed him not to be the winner, after all? Of course, it doesn't make any sense, unless you realize the foundation upon which Scalia based his transparently partisan remarks. He doesn't believe in democracy, he doesn't even believe in republicanism, he is a monarchist.
Scalia revealed his true motivations when he spoke on the subject of capital punishment at the University of Chicago (February 2002). During his remarks, he stated: "The reaction of people of faith to this tendency of democracy to obscure the divine authority behind government should not be resignation to it, but the resolution to combat it as effectively as possible." ("God's Justice and Ours" HERE )
Democracy obscuring divine authority behind government? Perhaps this helps shed some light on why Scalia and the four other right- wing "justices" could so easily subvert our election process and, through an act of divine intervention, usher the son onto the throne lost some eight years earlier by his father, George I. We are assuming that we are still independent sovereigns and freemen as declared by our Declaration of Independence and that the Constitution is still in effect. Scalia has no such illusion. History supports his position, sorry to say.
Scalia is an ideologue so accustomed to our willingness to continue to be subjects that he does not even consider the ideal of a government of, by, and for the people. That ideal has remained as useful fiction to be taught in Civics classes and mouthed by the politicians. HE KNOWS that we are mere chattel by presumption. Since we have not even discovered that our status as freemen has been lost through more than two hundred years of our history, much less withdrawn our implied consent to be subjects, we are presumed to be subjects before the courts and in the minds of people like Scalia.
Scalia speaks of civil disobedience with contempt and quotes the Bible, "Ye must needs be subject." We must, as mere servants of the ruling class, acquiesce to our divinely guided leaders. For who are we, as mere subjects, to question those who make (or interpret) the laws? After all, he says that "government carries the sword as 'the minister of God,' to 'execute wrath' upon the evildoer." No, he has not reverted to a justice of another time—WE have by our ignorance and silence, acquiesced to a lower status reminiscent of another time.
There you have it! In his eyes, we are subjects unworthy of honor, peace and justice. Somehow Scalia's statements seem like a long way from the Declaration of Independence in which Americans stood before the world as sovereigns invested with certain inalienable rights, including the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. After the American Revolution, the monarchies of Europe saw Democracy as an unnatural, ungodly, ideological threat, every bit as radical and dangerous as Communism was regarded by Western nations upon its inception. Just as the 1917 Communist Revolution in Russia spawned other revolutions around the world, the American Revolution provided an example and incentive for people all over the world to overthrow their European monarchies. What has happened? When did we give up our natural, God-given rights? Our forefathers fought and won that war didn't they?
Sovereignty, Revolution, Birth of a New Nation
Yes, our forefathers fought one of the bloodiest wars in history and won their independence. They understood the historical roots of war, injustice and oppression, and we've lost this knowledge. Our history books did, indeed, leave out a lot of the truth and lied about much of the rest. History teachers often teach history in such a way that young students swear to never again study history! When I attempted to teach American History from sources outside the history books I was forced from my 26-year teaching career by my principal. We have been led and lulled to forget WHO we are. All this has been engineered by those who would keep us ignorant of the truth.
The primary reason for the War for Independence was not "taxation without representation", but the forced payment of taxes to the King in gold instead of paper money. America was flourishing by using her own "fiat money" system based only on production, not a gold-based system that could be manipulated by the King. The King could not "control" the fiat money system and therefore passed a law requiring that taxes be paid in gold only. The King had most of the gold—the colonies had little; so unemployment ensued—and embittered colonists cried for war. Benjamin Franklin put it this way, "The colonies would have gladly born the little tax on tea, and other matters, had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money." Prior to the Revolutionary War, The Times of London said this regarding fiat money in America:
"If this mischievous financial policy, which has its origins in North America, shall become endurrated down to a fixture, then that government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous without precedent in the history of the world. The brains and the wealth of all the countries will go to North America. That country must be destroyed or it will destroy every Monarchy on the globe."
The truth is that the Revolution failed. You might say that we won a military victory over the most powerful military force on the planet at the time. However, reading the Treaty of Paris it is clear that we were not exactly negotiating as equals.
We had won the recall of British troops but not the bankers. Even though we are taught that we won our independence from England, we actually were able to remain free from the international bankers for only a few years at the close of the presidency of Andrew Jackson. The most visible of the power structure was the East India Company owned by the bankers and the Crown in London, England. This was an entirely private enterprise whose flag was adopted by Queen Elizabeth in 1600—thirteen red and white horizontal stripes with a blue rectangle in its upper left-hand corner. All debts owed before the war were to be collected by the foreign creditors.
When the creditors of the new nation found the Articles of Confederation to be inadequate to exact payment from their young debtor, the Constitution was written and supported by the bankers through their associates, for increase their control over the United States of America. Had the Articles of Confederation been completed and adopted, instead of the Constitution, the bankers would have had far less control.
Any constitution must have some prior reference to establish its foundation. The authority for the American Constitution is based upon the Bible; the Magna Carta, signed in 1215 by King John; the Petition of Rights, granted by King Charles I in 1628; the English Bill of Rights, granted by William and Mary in 1689; the right of habeas corpus, granted by King Charles II, and the Articles of Confederation. Any and every constitution thereafter must have an enabling clause. From this point onward, no constitution may diminish, in any manner, those rights already established in the above six documents.
The Declaration of Independence established that all people are sovereign under God's Natural Law. Sovereign people of the various states, created the state governments for the protection of their rights. They delegated certain authority from the people's powers by and through the state constitutions in order that the three branches of government could properly carry out the dictates outlined in the State constitutions to protect our rights.
The States then created the United States.
The American Constitution created a new structure of government that was established on a much higher plane than either the parliamentary system or the confederation of states. It was a people's "constitutional republic," where a certain amount of power was delegated to the states and a certain amount was delegated to the federal government. The United States, by way of the Congress of the United States, has certain powers delegated by the Constitution. So far as the several States party to the Constitution are concerned, the United States may not exercise power not delegated by the Constitution. All power not delegated to the United States by the Constitution is reserved to the several States within their respective territorial borders—or, to the people.
British Subversion, Banks, and Treason
Even though the Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War in 1783, the simple fact of our existence threatened the monarchies where it hurts most: financially. The United States stood as a heroic role model for other nations, which inspired them to also struggle against oppressive monarchies. The French Revolution (1789-1799) and the Polish uprising (1794) were, in part, encouraged by the American Revolution. Though we stood like a beacon of hope for most of the world, the monarchies regarded the United States as a political infection, the principle source of radical democracy that was destroying monarchies around the world. The monarchies realized that if the principle source of that infection could be destroyed, the rest of the world might avoid the contagion and the monarchies would be saved.
Knowing they couldn't destroy us militarily, they resorted to more covert methods of political and financial subversion, employing spies and secret agents skilled in bribery and legal deception; it was perhaps the first "cold war." In the 1794 Jay Treaty, the United States agreed to pay £600,000 sterling to King George III, as reparations for the American Revolution. The US Senate ratified the treaty in secret session and ordered that it not be published. When Benjamin Franklin's grandson published it anyway (perhaps our first whistleblower), the exposure and resulting public up-roar so angered the Congress that it passed the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) so federal judges could prosecute editors and publishers for reporting the truth about the government.
Since we supposedly had won the Revolutionary War, why would our Senators agree to pay reparations to the loser? And why would they agree to pay £600,000 sterling, eleven years after the war ended? It doesn't make sense, especially in light of the Senate's secrecy and later fury over being exposed… unless we assume our Senators had been bribed to serve the British monarchy and betray the American people! That is treason!
From the beginning, the United States Bank had been opposed by the Democratic-Republicans lead by Thomas Jefferson, but the Federalists (the pro-monarchy party) won the vote. The initial capitalization was $10,000,000 -- 80 % of which would be owned by foreign bankers. Since the bank was authorized to lend up to $20,000,000 (double its paid capital), it was a profitable deal for both government and the bankers, since they could lend, and collect interest on $10,000,000 that didn't exist.
However, the European bankers outfoxed the U.S. government, and by 1796, the US government owed the bank $6,200,000 and was forced to sell most of its shares. By 1802, our government owned no stock in the United States Bank!
Thomas Jefferson had warned,
If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks...will deprive the people of all property until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.... The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.
Several short-lived attempts to impose the central banking scheme on the United States were defeated by the patriotic efforts of Presidents Madison, Jefferson, Jackson, Van Buren and Lincoln.
Bank Fraud, Bribery, and Corruption
Chief among the international financiers was Amshel Bauer of Germany who, in 1748 opened a goldsmith shop under the name of Red Shield. (in German the name is spelled Rothschild and is pronounced Rote- shilld). In 1787, Amshel (Bauer) Rothschild made the famous statement: "Let me issue and control a Nation's money, and I care not who writes the laws." He had five Sons Amshel Mayer, Solomon, Jacob, Nathan, and Carl. In 1798, the five Rothschild brothers expanded by opening banks in Germany, Vienna, Paris, London, and Naples.
The objective behind this bank was to receive special privilege to use the unjust fractional reserve banking to print money and loan it to the government and industry. No money could go into circulation without interest being paid to the bankers.
Fractional reserve banking is very simple. It is simply a special privilege given to a man or group of men to create credit out of thin air; by extending this credit/debt to everyone else in society who does not have the same privilege, and then collecting from society the money plus interest, they become very rich without having to produce anything of value.
The basic mathematics behind this system is very clear. If this system is left in place long enough, the man or group who controls this system of debt creation will own all the gold available in the nation. Once the supply of real money (gold) is in his or their hands, this man or group of men becomes the master of the entire nation. Why? Because this man or group of men controls the only source of operating medium (money) available through which the nation functions. Only the man who has the privilege of printing the money and loaning it at interest can determine who gets special funding—his friends and allies. Everyone else is limited to how much money they have access to; therefore, after two or three generations, the friends and allies of this "banker" will own all of the nation—just as America is now owned by a very small cadre of very wealthy men.
How long this process takes to work its way through the wealth of the nation depends upon how successful the "banker" is in forcing, through bribery and corruption, the restriction of the formal government's issuance of real money backed by gold or silver. As the supply of real money shrinks, the people of the nation are forced to rely on the creation of a fictitious debt by the privileged few to a greater and greater extent, until finally, the only thing left is a massive amount of "unpayable debt," created from nothing and consisting only of the interest charged upon the fictitious debt, and collecting interest for every moment of its existence. All for the benefit of the privileged, who become the de facto (illegally usurped) government because of the "money power" they wield.
Through the Bank of England, the Rothschilds demanded a private bank in the United States to hold the securities of the United States as the pledged assets to the Crown of England in order to secure the debt to which our government had defaulted. As one of his first acts, President Washington declared a financial emergency. William Morris with the help of Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of Treasury, heavily promoted the creation a private bank to service the debt to the international bankers. In 1791, Congress chartered the first national bank for a term of 20 years, to hold the securities of the same European bankers who had been holding the debts before the war. The bankers loaned worthless, un-backed, non-secured printed money to each other to charter this first bank. In December 12, 1791, the Bank of the United States opened its doors in Philadelphia.
The holder of the securities was the private bank. So under public international law, the creditor nation forced the United States to establish a private bank to hold the securities as the collateral for the national debt. James Madison had warned, "History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and its issuance."
British Subversion, Titles of Nobility and Treason
For the early decades of US history, relations between the United States and Great Britain remained strained. Their relationship deteriorated sharply with the outbreak of war in Europe in 1803. Britain imposed a blockade on neutral countries such as the United States. In addition, the British took American sailors from their ships and forced them to serve in the British Navy. Concerned about the many English spies and troublemakers, Congress passed an amendment to prevent those who had English titles and connections from obtaining any seat in government. Called the Titles of Nobility Act (TONA), it reads as follows:
"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honour, or shall without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them."
All "titles of nobility" were prohibited in both Article VI of the Articles of Confederation (1777) and in Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution of the United States (1778), but there was no penalty. Although already prohibited by the Constitution, an additional "title of nobility" amendment was deemed necessary and was proposed in 1789, again in 1810, and finally ratified in 1819. But the notice of ratification delivered to the Secretary of State, an attorney with the title, "Esquire," disappeared. As a result, there still is no penalty for accepting titles or emoluments from foreign rulers today, just the prohibition.
Clearly, the founding fathers saw such a serious threat in "titles of nobility" and "honours," that anyone receiving them would be required to forfeit their citizenship. Obviously the Amendment carried much more significance for our founding fathers than is readily apparent today. They knew that our freedom could be subverted from inside our government and had sought to prevent such a bitter betrayal. Today most Senators and Congressmen, all Federal judges, and some of our Presidents are attorneys who carry the title "Esquire" often abbreviated as "Esq." The Constitution still forbids this, nevertheless.
In Colonial America, attorneys trained attorneys, but most held no "title of nobility" or "honor." There was no requirement that one be a lawyer to hold the position of district attorney, attorney general, or judge; a citizen's "counsel of choice" was not restricted to a lawyer and there was no state or national bar associations. The only organization that certified lawyers was the International Bar Association (IBA), chartered by the King of England, headquartered in London. Lawyers admitted to the IBA received the rank "Esquire" - a "title of British nobility."
"Esquire" was the principle title of nobility which the 13th Amendment ought to prohibit from the United States. Why? Because the loyalty of "Esquire" lawyers was suspect! Lawyers with an "Esquire" behind their names were agents of the monarchy, members of an organization whose principle purposes were political and regarded with the same wariness that some people today reserve for members of the KGB or the CIA.
The archaic definition of "honor" (as used when the 13th Amendment was ratified) meant anyone "obtaining or having an advantage or privilege over another." A contemporary example of an "honor" granted to only a few Americans is the privilege of being a judge: Lawyers can be judges and exercise the attendant privileges and powers, non-lawyers generally cannot. We address the judge as, "your Honor."
By prohibiting "honors," the missing, but now found, original 13th amendment prohibits any advantage or privilege that would grant some citizens an equal opportunity to achieve or exercise political power. Therefore, the second meaning (intent) of the original 13th Amendment was to insure political equality among all American citizens, by prohibiting anyone, even government officials, from claiming or exercising a special privilege or power (an "honor") over other citizens.
Both "esquire" and "honor" would be key targets of the 13th Amendment even today, because, while "titles of nobility" no longer apply now precisely as they did back in the early 1800's, it is clear that an "esquire" or bar attorney receives far better treatment in and by the courts as well as by the public at large in general, whereas if you represent yourself (pro se) or speak as a freeman (pro per), you are treated as though you were rabble. Your opinions are of little importance in court and you are often treated similarly by government officials. Because you are not "esquires" or bar attorneys, you are considered to be a useless eater, a subject "out of control." The concept of "honor" remains relevant, possibly more so today than at any previous time in U.S. history, for they, the "honors," are greatly feared and even revered, even by the esquires who are considered to be below them. Since the Original 13th Amendment has never been repealed, all acts of government since 1819 are technically null and void since most lawmakers, prohibited from participation in government by the Constitution and who should even be stripped of their right to be a US Citizen under TONA, have continued to interject themselves into the political process.
When the people discovered that European banking interests owned most of the United States Bank they saw the sheer power of the banks and their ability to influence representative government by economic manipulation and outright bribery. On February 20, 1811, Congress therefore refused to renew the Bank's charter on the grounds that the Bank was unconstitutional. This led to the withdrawal of $7,000,000 in specie (money in coin) by European investors, which in turn, precipitated an economic recession, and the War of 1812. This "war" was punishment for America refusing to do business on the terms of the International Banking families of the House of Rothschild, through the first Bank of the United States. Congress refused to let the National Bank renew its Charter.
Except for Gen. Andrew Jackson's victory in the Battle of New Orleans, the War of 1812 produced a string of American military disasters. The most shocking of these was the British Army's burning of the Capitol, the President's house, and other public buildings in Washington on August 24 and 25, 1814. (Americans had previously burned public buildings in Canada.) During the War of 1812 our national archives and many libraries and document repositories were burned and some of the evidence of the TONA disappeared. Nevertheless, the legislature of Virginia ratified the amendment and it was subsequently printed in many official publications as the 13th Amendment, even in states which had NOT ratified, such as Connecticut. But beginning in 1832 it began to disappear from texts, although official state publications continued to publish it as late as 1876.
There are undoubtedly other examples of the monarchy's efforts to subvert or destroy the United States; some are common knowledge, others remain to be disclosed to the public. For example, national archivist David Dodge discovered a book called 2 VA LAW in the Library of Congress Law Library. According to Dodge, "This is an un- catalogued book in the rare book section that reveals a plan to overthrow the Constitutional government by secret agreements engineered by the lawyers of the time." That is one of the reasons why the TONA was ratified by the state of Virginia in the particular manner in which they did, although the alleged "notification" thereof was a long time thereafter claimed to have been "lost in the mail." You see, there is no public record that this aforementioned book exists either!
That may sound surprising, but according to the Gazette (5/10/91), "the Library of Congress has 349,402 un-catalogued rare books and 13.9 million un-catalogued rare manuscripts." There may be secrets buried in that mass of documents even more astonishing than a missing Constitutional Amendment. Yet this image of documentary disarray appropriately describes our situation today: we are inundated with information that we have not had the time or interest to sort through. As a result we have lost a precious treasure in the chaos and turmoil of daily life: our sovereignty.
One amazing aspect of the War of 1812 was the existence of a depression during wartime. War always brings a short-term prosperity, except in the case of this war. To understand this, it is vital for you to know that all depressions and recessions are artificially created through the restriction of a medium of exchange—money. This restriction keeps money OUT of circulation. Fewer dollars available to facilitate production and distribution means poverty and starvation.
The precariousness of government finance during the war and the post war recession convinced the Republican government under James Madison, to re-establish a national bank. Thus was created the Second Bank of the United States in 1816.
In January 9, 1832 The Second National Bank applied for a charter renewal 4 years early. This time President Andrew Jackson vetoed the Bank's recharter on the grounds that the Bank was unconstitutional and he successfully paid off the national debt leaving the U.S. with a surplus of $5,000. He said, "If congress has the right under the Constitution to issue paper money, it was given them to use themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations."
On January 30, 1835, President Andrew Jackson attended a congressional funeral in the Capitol building. As he exited, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed house painter, pointed a pistol at Jackson and fired. The percussion cap exploded, but the bullet did not discharge. The enraged Jackson raised his cane to strike his attacker, who fired again. The second weapon also misfired and the sixty-seven-year-old president escaped assassination at close range. Jackson was convinced that Lawrence was hired by his political enemies, the Whigs, to stop his plan to destroy the Bank of the United States.
Andrew Jackson violated public international law because he denied the creditor his just lien rights on the debtor. However, the bankers did not lend value (substance), so in actuality they had an unperfected lien. Therefore the law actually did not apply.
The End of the American Republic: the Shadow Government is Born
In 1860-61, the Southern states walked out of Congress. This created sine die, a situation in which not enough representatives were present to carry on legislative business. This was a constitutional crisis that the newly elected president, Abraham Lincoln, had to resolve.
The Introduction to Senate Report 93-549 (93rd Congress, 1st Session, 1973) summarizes the situation as best as possible:
"A majority of the people of the United States have lived all of their lives under emergency rule. . . And, in the United States, actions taken by the Government in times of great crises have –from, at least, the Civil War—in important ways, shaped the present phenomenon of a permanent state of national emergency."
From the research information available, it can be reasonably proven that when the Southern states walked out of Congress on March 27, 1861, the quorum to conduct business under the Constitution for the united States of America was lost. Thus, the only votes that Congress could lawfully take, under parliamentary law, were those to set the time to reconvene, take a vote to get a quorum, vote to adjourn and set a date, time, and place to reconvene at a later time, but instead, Congress apparently abandoned the House and Senate without setting a date to reconvene. Under the parliamentary law of Congress, when this happened, Congress became sine die (pronounced see-na dee- a; literally "without day") and thus when Congress adjourned sine die, it ceased to exist as a lawful deliberative body, and thus the only lawful, constitutional power that could declare war was no longer lawful, or in session.
It can also be reasonably proven that the Southern states, by virtue of their secession from the Union, also ceased to exist sine die, and that some state legislatures in the Northern bloc also adjourned sine die, and thus, all the states which were parties to creating the Constitution for the united States of America apparently ceased to exist. On April 15, 1861, President Lincoln executed an executive order, Lincoln Executive Proclamation 1, and it can also be reasonably proven that the united States of America have been ruled ever since by the President under executive powers.
It can also be reasonably proven that when Congress eventually did reconvene, it was reconvened under the military authority of the Commander-in-Chief and not by Rules of Order for Parliamentary bodies or by Constitutional Law, thus placing the American people under martial rule ever since the "national emergency" declared by President Lincoln. Thus, the Constitution for the united States of America has subsequently temporarily ceased being the acknowledged law of the land in many courts, and the President, Congress, and the courts have unlawfully presumed that they were free to remake the Union in a new image, whereas, lawfully, no constitutional provisions were in place which afforded power to any of the actions which were taken which presumed to place the Union under the new form of control.
President Lincoln apparently knew that his executive orders no longer had any force under Constitutional Law. So he commissioned General Orders No. 100 (April 24, 1863) apparently as a special code to govern his actions under martial law and to justify the seizure of power, which further extended the laws of the District of Columbia and which also fictionally implemented the provisions of Article I, Section 8, Clauses 17-18 of the Constitution beyond the boundaries of Washington, D.C. and into the several states. General Orders No. 100, also called the Lieber Instructions and the Lieber Code, have apparently extended the laws of war and private international law into the American states, and the United States government has become the presumed military conqueror of the people and the land of the several American nations.
Martial rule has apparently been kept secret and has never really ended. Lincoln was assassinated before he could complete the implementation of his plan to constitutionally and not militarily reform the Southern national governments and restore Congress. Ever since the united States of America has been ruled under military law under the Commander of Chief—the President—and his assumed executive powers according to the policies of Executive Orders: a military dictator type function.
Constitutional law under the original Constitution for the American states is apparently enforced only as a matter of keeping the public peace under the provisions of General Orders No. 100 under martial rule. This "peace" is further evidenced in the Preamble of the so- called Expatriation Act of 1868. Under martial law, title is a mere fiction, since all property belongs to the military except for that property which the Commander-in-Chief may, in his benevolence, exempt from taxation and seizure and upon which he allows the "enemy" to reside.
In proclaiming the first Trading with the Enemy Act by Executive Order, President Lincoln set in place the means by which the federal government could interact with Americans who were not 14th Amendment citizens. They could technically be designated as enemies. Are you beginning to understand how We the People could be at odds with our "government?"
In a message to Congress December 3, 1861, Abraham Lincoln answered the banker's argument that the people could not be trusted with their constitutional power, the political and monetary system of free enterprise conceived by our Founding Fathers, by saying:
"No men living are more worthy to be trusted than those who toil up from poverty -- none less inclined to take or touch aught which they have not honestly earned. Let them beware of surrendering a political power which they already possess, and which if surrendered, will surely be used to close the door of advancement against such as they, and to fix new disabilities and burdens upon them, till all of liberty shall be lost."
In 1865, just before the close of the Civil War, President Lincoln declared his new monetary policy:
"The Government should create, issue, and circulate all the currency and credits needed to satisfy the spending power of the Government and the buying power of consumers. By the adoption of these principles, the taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest. Money will cease to be master and become the servant of humanity…. The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of government, but it is the governments' greatest opportunity."
Had it been implemented, it would have ushered in a worldwide economic renewal. Unfortunately, a few weeks after its introduction, Lincoln was assassinated because he defied the bankers in proposing to print interest free money to pay the war debt. Thus, the government continued to operate fully under the authority of private law dictated by the creditor.
Since President Lincoln was assassinated before he could complete plans for reforming constitutional government in the Southern States and end the martial rule by executive order, the 14th Amendment to the Constitution has further created a "new citizenship" or "status" for the expanded jurisdiction. Laws for the District of Columbia were proposed and passed by Congress in 1871, the District of Columbia being incorporated as a private, foreign corporation by The District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871, and all states in the Union were apparently reformed as franchisees or political subdivisions of the corporation known as the UNITED STATES, hence creating a new union of American states. What remained of the government was the private side under the rule of the bankers.
The first attempt by Congress to define citizenship was in 1866 in the passage of the Civil Rights Act (Revised Statutes section 1992, 8 United States Code Annotated section 1). The act provided that:
"All persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power are declared to be citizens of the United States."
And this in turn was followed in 1868 by the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, United States Code Annotated Amendment 14, declaring:
"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside."
At this period of time, the only people in the United States who were under the jurisdiction of the private bifurcated government of the ten miles square of Washington, D.C., were the government employees, those within the territories owned by the United States and now the former slaves. The former citizens of the South, now "captured" became 14th Amendment citizens. The remainder of the people could still invoke the power over government through original jurisdiction of the Republic side of the Constitution.
A new 13th Amendment was enacted December 18, 1865 and the 14th Amendment was enacted July 28, 1868. It was ratified in Southern states under martial law. A state could only obtain its freedom from federal military rule by ratifying this amendment. Any contract entered under duress is null and void. But then the Constitution was not even in effect following sine die and the proclamation of martial law.
The 14th Amendment brought the freed slaves, whose previous owners were private plantations and transferred those slaves under subjection of the government, the ten miles square jurisdiction of Washington, D.C. And it offered its protection to those who would choose to become its subjects…in exchange for their sovereignty.
The 14th Amendment is a good example of the "give-a-little, take a lot" strategy that is often used, a sugar coating to a bitter pill. Sovereign Citizens had created a government to guarantee them their rights. In contrast, the federal government created fourteenth amendment citizenship to guarantee its power over its citizens. It seems to be taking citizens under its protection but at the price of servitude. Sovereigns may choose to become subjects; free men and women to become vassals. This amendment has always been controversial. Many people over the years have questioned the amount of power it vests in the federal government. Some have even questioned its validity. On one occasion Judge Ellett of the Utah Supreme Court remarked:
"I cannot believe that any court, in full possession of its faculties, could honestly hold that the amendment was properly approved and adopted." State v. Phillips, Pacific Reporter, 2nd Series, Vol. 540, Page 941, 942 (1975)
However, the most important fact about this amendment is that, although it created a new class of citizen, it did not have any effect on Sovereign Citizens. Both classes still exist: When the Constitution was adopted the people of the United States were the citizens of the several States for whom and for whose posterity the government was established. Each of them was a citizen of the United States at the adoption of the Constitution, and all free persons thereafter born within one of the several States became by birth citizens of the State and of the United States.
Both classes of citizen still exist. It's your right to be a Sovereign Citizen, while it's a privilege to be a fourteenth amendment citizen, and most importantly, it's up to you to determine which one you are, and which one you want to be. Just remember that you "pay" for a privilege, whereas a right carries no obligation. This is at the heart of your personal Declaration of Independence.
Two Governments, Two Flags: the Corporate State
Once the smoke settled after the Civil War, European international bankers arrived in town. In 1871 the default again loomed and bankruptcy was imminent. So in 1872, the ten miles square District of Columbia was incorporated in England. A loophole was discovered in the Constitution by cunning lawyers in league with the international bankers. They realized that a separate nation by the same name existed that Congress had created in Article I, Section 8, Clause 17.
The Congress shall have power:
To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten square miles) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful buildings; - And
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
This "United States" is a Legislative "Democracy" within the Constitutional Republic, and is known as the Federal United States. It has exclusive, unlimited rule over its Citizenry, the residents of the District of Colombia, the territories and enclaves (Guam, Midway Islands, Wake Island, Puerto Rico, etc.), and anyone who is a Citizen by way of the 14th Amendment (naturalized Citizens).
Both United States have the same Congress that rules in both nations. One "United States," the Republic of fifty States, has the "stars and stripes" as its flag, but without any fringe on it. The Federal United States' flag is the stars and stripes with a yellow fringe, seen in all the courts. The abbreviations of the States of the Continental United States are, with or without the zip codes, Ala., Alas., Ariz., Ark., Cal., etc. The abbreviations of the States under the jurisdiction of the Federal United States, the Legislative Democracy, are AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, etc. (without any periods).
The international bankers and the Congress conjured up this bit of mischief and passed it into law. But whose law? Congress broke faith with We the People in 1871 and sold us out when they formed a private corporation and made it the government of the District of Columbia. They used the Constitution through the 14th Amendment, as their by- laws, therefore taking their authority not under the Constitution but taking their authority over the constitution. They copyrighted not only the constitution but also many related names such as, THE UNITED STATES, U.S. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, USA as their own. This is the final blow to the original constitution. Hence forth, the UNITED STATES has been governed entirely by private corporate law, dictated by the banks as creditors.
The "Act to Provide a Government for the District of Columbia," Section 34 of the Forty-First Congress of the United States, Session III, Chapter 61 and 62, enacted February 21, 1871, states that the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA is a corporation, whose jurisdiction is applicable only in the ten-mile-square parcel of land known as the District of Columbia and to whatever properties are legally titled to the UNITED STATES, by its registration in the corporate County, State, and Federal governments that are under military power of the UNITED STATES and its creditors. Under this provision, the military Congress of the UNITED STATES had obtained the power to pass private international law for application within the federal District of Columbia. All States of the Union adopted new legislatively created 'conditions' and 'codified' their laws under federal mandate. State 'codes' were unlawfully adopted despite their origin as instruments of sovereign people. However, We the People remained sovereign.
UNITED STATES CODE, Title 28, 3002(15)(A), basically reiterates that the UNITED STATES is a corporation. What was not said in 1871, but was implicit, was what is plainly stated at Title 28, 3002(15)(3): That all departments of the UNITED STATES CORPORATION are part of the corporation. Title 28, UNITED STATES CODE, is Copyrighted Private International Law. Indeed, the UNITED STATES CODE, in its entirety, is Copyrighted Private International Law, and applicable only in the District of Columbia.
This incorporation was first reported by Gary W. Phillips, whose career with the Immigration and Naturalization Service began in 1956. He was the INS director at Sea Tac Airport for 20 years and began challenging the income tax in 1985 (The Idaho Observer, March, 2000). After nearly 40 years of government service, Phillips was forced to flee his country to protect his life after exposing the facts of the illegality of the federal government's criminal income tax collection scam -- facts that are becoming well know among informed people throughout the country.
Where did the Congress find the authority in the Constitution to reconstitute any part of the united States as a corporation? Quite simply, the 1791 Constitution was set aside to make room for the corporation. Would this Act benefit the Republic? No, the private, corporate bottom line is profit. The municipal, public bottom line is service. To replace our service-oriented form of government with a profit-oriented form of government without our knowledge or consent can only be described as treason.
A few superficial changes were made to the original Constitution and it was no longer the real thing. Congress did not change the name of the document so they could claim to be reading from the Constitution. They merely changed it from the Constitution for the united States of America to the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. They changed the "for" to "of'" and capitalized all the letters. All of the sudden we had two Constitutions, the original for show and the revision for actual use.
The Act of 1871 provided a government for the District of Columbia and created a corporation entitled the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA whose jurisdiction extends only over corporate entities created by the municipal corporation and operative only in the District of Columbia. Washington, District of Columbia is the capitol of the District of Columbia, not the United States of America, and all laws passed within the District of Columbia are applicable and enforceable only in the District of Columbia and it's possessions.
The States of the Republic are not possessions of the District of Columbia. Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Guam are possessions of the District of Columbia as well as property legally titled to the UNITED STATES by states and counties.
The UNITED STATES CODE, in totality, was put together in the District of Columbia as Copyrighted Private International Law and is applicable only in the District of Columbia. By their own rules of jurisdiction, the UNITED STATES attorneys have no business prosecuting anyone outside of the District of Columbia or Federal territories. The federal court has no venue outside of the District of Columbia and, therefore, has no jurisdiction outside of the District of Columbia and its possessions. The Congress cannot pass a law that is applicable in the several States of the Republic.
If all the laws passed in the District of Columbia are Private International Law, including all of the UNITED STATES CODE and the statutes at large passed after 1871, and are applicable and enforceable only in the District of Columbia, then how could they have become the law of the land? Because, not knowing better, We the People allowed it. We have allowed agents of foreign countries to build an illegal corporation that has systematically corrupted every state, county and city in this nation and corrupted the status and standing of most people of the united States of America. The only way that a UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT can have jurisdiction over a Sovereign is if the latter volunteers to the jurisdiction or fails to declare his independence as a Sovereign.
This corporation has created dozens of agencies, the IRS, FBI, DEA, and the BATF, to name a few, which employ thousands of agents who receive excellent salaries and benefits for betraying their friends and families while enforcing the private edicts of the so-called Congress. The men and women of Congress smile, speak softly, and then direct their illegal agencies to destroy those who do not fully conform to their wishes, and strike fear into hearts of those who do. Kidnapping and conspiracy are involved in every arrest and conviction by federal authorities outside of the District of Columbia.
The question now leads to whether our duly elected public officials swear an oath to uphold the Constitution for the united States of America, the Republic within which our rights are protected by a service-oriented government, or swear an oath to the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, the profit-oriented corporation?
It appears by their actions that most government employees, knowingly or unknowingly, have sworn an oath to the corporate UNITED STATES. It is our duty as the People who elected them into office, to demand accountability from our "public" officials and confront them as to where their loyalties lie. Is it with the corrupt, treasonous corporation that is controlled by foreign agents from within and without, or is it with our constitutional Republic, the united States of America and her citizens?
An articulate defender of a conservative monetary policy, President James A. Garfield urged the resumption of specie payments and the payment of government debts. He said, "Whoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce." In his Inaugural Address in 1881, Garfield said:
The chief duty of the National Government in connection with the currency of the country is to coin money and declare its value. Grave doubts have been entertained whether Congress is authorized by the Constitution to make any form of paper money legal tender. The present issue of United States notes has been sustained by the necessities of war; but such paper should depend for its value and currency upon its convenience in use and its prompt redemption in coin at the will of the holder, and not upon its compulsory circulation. These notes are not money, but promises to pay money. If the holders demand it, the promise should be kept.
Garfield was assassinated after only two hundred days in office, 80 days after being shot by a lawyer, ostensibly because he was upset about not receiving an ambassadorial posting to France.
In 1909, default loomed once again. The US government asked the Crown of England for an extension of time. This extension was granted for another 20 years on several conditions. One of the conditions was that the United States permit the creditors to establish a new national bank. The bankers moved deeper into our nation by the establishment of the Federal Reserve Bank in 1913, the IRS to collect the interest on their loans made to the UNITED STATES, and the 17th Amendment enacted May 31, 1913, was the condition for the extension of time. The 16th and 17th Amendment further reduced the states power. The UNITED STATES adopted the mercantile system of ancient Babylonian.
With the passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the UNITED STATES was firmly lashed to the yoke, so that a small number of very rich men have been able to lay upon the people a yoke little better than slavery itself. That yoke inevitably grows heavier with ever- compounding interest, and totals over $20 trillion of debt owed by the American people today ($80,000 per American). This vast accumulation of wealth concentrates immense power and despotic economic domination in the hands of the few central bankers "who are able to govern credit and its allotment, for this reason supplying, so to speak, the life-blood to the entire economic body, and grasping, as it were, in their hands the very soul of the economy so that no one dare breathe against their will." A worldwide tyranny is gradually being imposed, hidden to most, by the money masters.
First World War
In 1917 we were drafted into the First World War. President Woodrow Wilson had to find a way to persuade the American public to go along with an intervention in another of Europe's wars. Although restrained to be neutral in the deadly conflict by the Neutrality Act, he sent our navy to shepherd British convoys across the Atlantic. German U-boat commanders did not take the bait and avoided contact with the US destroyers. To force the issue, a US naval ship sailed into the midst of a battle between British and German naval fleets and was sunk. But when the truth was learned, Wilson had to find another way.
The Lusitania was a speedy warship refitted by the British as a passenger liner. Unknown to its passengers the Lusitania was carrying a huge cargo of military equipment and munitions in violation of the US Neutrality Act. The Germans knew that and tried to warn the passengers by placing advertisements in prominent US newspapers. The US State Department ordered all of the newspapers to refuse the ad. Only one newspaper in Des Moines, Iowa, bravely published the information. To ensure a successful provocation, the Lusitania was ordered to sail at 75% speed using only three of its four powerful engines. Then the naval escort was ordered away leaving the Lusitania vulnerable as it entered the war zone. The first torpedo hit the explosive cargo and blew the bottom out of the Lusitania. It sank in only 18 minutes. 126 innocent civilians died. Wilson now had his provocation to rally Americans behind the "War to End All Wars."
The US participation in WWI exacerbated the national debt so that it became impossible for us to pay it off in 1929. It also enhanced the War Powers Act that President Lincoln, by Executive Order put in place during his Presidency. This War Powers Act was re-enforced and the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 was passed to define, regulate, and punish those who were trading with enemies, who were then required by that act to be licensed by the government to do business. This will become more important later on.
The Great Depression: From Sovereignty to Servitude
We all know what happened in 1929. This was the year of the stock market crash and the beginning of The Great Depression. The stock market crash moved billions of dollars from the people to the banks. This also removed cash from circulation for the people's use. Those who still possessed any cash, invested in high interest yielding Treasury Bonds driven higher by increased demand. As a result, even more cash was removed from circulation in the general public to the point where there was not enough cash left in circulation to buy the goods being produced. Production came to a halt as excess inventory overwhelmed the market. There were more products on the market than there was cash to buy them. Prices plummeted and industries plunged into bankruptcy, throwing millions of people out of work. Foreclosures on homes, factories, businesses and farms rose to the highest level in the history of America. A mere dime was literally salvation to many families now living on the street. Millions of people lost everything they had, keeping only the clothes on their backs.
In Europe, the International Bankers in 1930 declared several nations bankrupt, including the United States. In 1933, immediately after Franklin Delano Roosevelt took office, his first act as President was to publicly declare the United States bank holiday. He further went on to issue his Presidential Executive Order on March 5th, 1933 that all United States Citizens must turn in all their gold in return for Federal Reserve Notes. This was passed into law by Congress on June 5, 1933.
We the People turned in all our gold at that time. Why? Were we United States Citizens? No. We were still a sovereign people until that time. We just thought that we were required to turn in all our gold. Only those people living in Washington, D.C., and the 14th Amendment Citizens were so required. As sovereigns, we were not under the jurisdiction of the United States of America, which incorporated in 1872.
When we turned in our gold, we just volunteered to be citizens of the jurisdiction of the ten miles square of Washington D.C. and their laws. We became 14th Amendment Citizens. Our birth certificates, the title to our bodies, were registered at the Department of Commercial. This title to our bodies, all of our property and all of our future labor, was pledged to the International Bankers as security for the money owed in bankruptcy. This was done under the authority of commercial law (Babylonian law) by and through Title. The American People were not in bankruptcy. Only the Corporate UNITED STATES was in bankruptcy. But with the US Corporation holding the title to your body and life, you could be used for collateral to secure the national debt through the birth certificate given by parents voluntarily to be entered into the Commercial Registry. This act, in commerce, gave Title to your body by way of a "constructive" contract.
Next, the government created an artificial 'person' in your name, a corporation, a fictitious entity to take its place in a virtual reality of contract law and corporations. By and through an adhesion contract, the government then made you, the real man or woman, responsible for that fictional entity, a fiduciary and surety for an artificial entity. Your artificial entity secured the National debt and through it, you became a 14th Amendment Citizen of the UNITED STATES. In other words, they got you to think and act as though you really were that fictional entity. You agreed by your action or failure to act. YOU adhered to a contract offer because you thought or acted as though you were the receiver of the offer. In doing so, YOU were presumed to have ACCEPTED THE CONTRACT.
All licenses and all existing contracts are made between the UNITED STATES or THE STATE OF (whatever state you live in) and your artificial entity. That fictitious entity binds you to the UNITED STATES and its sub-corporations because they have, through adhesion contract, made you, the real man or woman, fiduciary and responsible for that artificial entity. Of course, you voluntarily sign, and even request, all those contracts, don't you? It seems to be your name, although you probably never spell it all in capital letters as they do. They wish for you to think nothing of the aberration, perhaps just something they do to be clear and error-free.
All of these contracts you sign carry with it your agreement to obey and uphold all the laws, rules and regulations passed by the Congress of the UNITED STATES CORPORATION and THE STATE OF. . . . and will be enforced against you.
From that day forward, We the People, once upon a time sovereigns who created government for our convenience and welfare, could never own property in allodium because the state now had possession of it all. In 1964, the state obtained title to all private property. You can only "rent" homes that you believe you own by paying taxes. You only have a certificate of title to the car you think you own, and you continue to drive it because of your yearly fee. The state owns the true title to our homes, our cars, to everything we thought or think we own. You married the state through your marriage license and your children became wards of the state. All of this was pledged, including all the fruits of your future labor, to the bankers as security against the national debt and was placed in the possession of the Secretary of State of each state as an agent for the Trustee of the Bankruptcy, the U.S. Secretary of Treasury. Not knowing the rules of the game you went directly to jail, you could not pass GO and you could not collect $200.
Cows in the Pasture or Freedom: the Hidden Choice
The way out of this is dilemma can be very complex. In fact, its complexity was intentional. Roosevelt had violated the law by placing us into servitude without our consent. Congressman Louis T. McFadden brought formal charges against the Federal Reserve and the Secretary of the Treasury and was coming dangerously close to calling for impeachment of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Two months AFTER the Executive Order, on June 5, 1933, the Senate and House of Representatives, 73d Congress, 1st Session, at 4:30 pm approved House Joint Resolution (HJR) 192: Joint Resolution To Suspend The Gold Standard And Abrogate The Gold Clause, Joint Resolution to assure uniform value to the coins and currencies of the United States, which formally declared the bankruptcy of the UNITED STATES.
F.D.R. by Executive Order declared the people outside federal territories to be the enemy by illegally altering the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1861, revised 1918.
The creation of Federal Zone citizenship further tightened up when you applied for your Social Security number after 1935. The benefits offered by this contract were hurriedly and voluntarily entered into when the Social Security Act was signed into law. Further contracts were to be entered into and license to be applied for–all voluntary actions. We unknowingly were entering into lifelong servitude to receive the benefits of the Lord of the Manor. We had descended into feudal vassalage without recognizing it.
President Roosevelt then called all the Governors into Washington D. C. for a conference. This was the beginning of the states losing the remainder of their sovereignty. It was not until 1944 that the corporate states lost all their power over the corporate United States with the Buck Act. With this Act, the states became, essentially, 14th Amendment Citizens as well. This completed the destruction of the corporate states having any power to protect against usurpation by the U.S. Government. The corporate states went under the jurisdiction of Washington, D.C.
Strangely enough, on October 28, 1977, HJR-192 was quietly repealed by public law 95-147. The joint resolution entitled "Joint resolution to assure uniform value to the coins and currencies of the United States" approved June 5, 1933 (31 U.S.C. 463), shall not apply to obligations issued on or after the date of enactment of this section.
The reason for the repeal of HJR-192 is somewhat obscure. After 44 years of unchallenged implementation, this public policy is clearly established by custom, usage and participation in the credit system by the American public. Those of us operating on the privilege of limited liability, via the public credit, are still bound.
The adoption of the Uniform Commercial Code by all States in 1964 and a number of other like laws and Acts were incorporated into this nation. This made the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), the Supreme Law of the Land.
Courts Shift from Common Law to Equity and Admiralty Courts
Under the Constitution, based on Common Law, the Republic of the Continental United States provides for legal cases: at Law, in Equity, and in Admiralty.
(1) Law is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense. It is the will of the majority, the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces, to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign over us all. Since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force—for the same reason—cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups. Law allows you to do anything you want to, as long as you don't infringe upon the life, liberty or property of anyone else. Law does not compel performance. Today's so-called laws (ordinances, statutes, acts, regulations, orders, precepts, etc.) are often erroneously perceived as law, but just because something is called a "law" does not necessarily make it a law. [There is a difference between "legal" and "lawful." Anything the government does is legal, but it may not be lawful.]
(2) Equity is the jurisdiction of compelled performance (for any contract you are a party to) and is based on what is fair in a particular situation. The term "equity" denotes the spirit and habit of fairness, justness, and right dealing which would regulate the intercourse of men with men. You have no rights other than what is specified in your contract. Equity has no criminal aspects to it.
(3) Admiralty is compelled performance plus a criminal penalty, a civil contract with a criminal penalty.
By 1938 the gradual merger procedurally between law and equity actions (i.e., the same court has jurisdiction over legal, equitable, and admiralty matters) was recognized. The nation was bankrupt and was owned by its creditors (the international bankers) who now owned everything—the Congress, the Executive, the courts, all the States and their legislatures and executives, all the land, and all the people. Everything was mortgaged in the national debt. We had gone from being sovereigns over government to subjects under government, through the use of negotiable instruments to discharge our debts with limited liability, instead of paying our debts at common law with gold or silver coin.
The change in our system of law from public law to private commercial law was recognized by the Supreme Court of the United States in the Erie Railroad vs. Thompkins case of 1938, after which case, in the same year, the procedures of Law were officially blended with the procedures of Equity. Prior to 1938, all U.S. Supreme Court decisions were based upon public law—or that system of law that was controlled by Constitutional limitation. Since 1938, all U.S. Supreme Court decisions are based upon what is termed public policy.
Public policy concerns commercial transactions made under the Negotiable Instrument's Law, which is a branch of the international Law Merchant. This has been codified into what is now known as the Uniform Commercial Code, which system of law was made uniform throughout the fifty States through the cunning of the Congress of the UNITED STATES.
In offering grants of negotiable paper (Federal Reserve Notes) which the Congress gave to the fifty States of the Union for education, highways, health, and other purposes, Congress bound all the States of the Union into a commercial agreement with the Federal United States (as distinguished from the Continental United States). The fifty States accepted the "benefits" offered by the Federal United States as the consideration of a commercial agreement between the Federal United States and each of the corporate States. The corporate States were then obligated to obey the Congress of the Federal United States and also to assume their portion of the equitable debts of the Federal United States to the international banking houses, for the credit loaned. The credit which each State received, in the form of federal grants, was predicated upon equitable paper.
This system of negotiable paper binds all corporate entities of government together in a vast system of commercial agreements and is what has altered our court system from one under the Common Law to a Legislative Article I Court, or Tribunal, system of commercial law. Those persons brought before this court are held to the letter of every statute of government on the federal, state, county, or municipal levels unless they have exercised the REMEDY provided for them within that system of Commercial Law whereby, when forced to use a so-called "benefit" offered, or available, to them, from government, they may reserve their former right, under the Common Law guarantee of same, not to be bound by any contract, or commercial agreement, that they did not enter knowingly, voluntarily, and intentionally. See Howard Freeman here:
In 1976, Congress took away any semblance of law or justice left within our court system. All law today is now construed, constructed and made up by the judge as it happens before your very eyes. Common law has almost disappeared from the courts. They took away any control or authority we might have had over the court system. This has been very well hidden from all of us.
Many of us going into court often wonder why and how the courts can simply override the laws we put into our paperwork. It's very simple now that we know how they do it. They operate on the words `construe and construct.'
A simple word such as `in' changed to `at' as in `at law' or `in law' has a totally separate meaning. For example: If you're in the river, you are wet, you can swim, etc., but if you're at the river, you might enjoy a refreshing picnic, play baseball or run races. See the difference a simple word can make? And, the attorneys often change this word when they answer your motions – in addition to many others.
It will pay you in dividends to read the answers of attorneys to your paperwork. Compare what they say the case law says to the actual case law itself. You'll discover that they have actually changed the words therein. This is illegal, you might say. No, not, according to the US Code.
You see, they can now construe and construct any law or statute to mean whatever they decide it means, for their benefit. You don't know any of this. You think they are railroading you in a kangaroo court. No, they are `legal' in what they do. They usually follow the law to the letter; Their law, private law, the law of contract, that you know nothing about. This law is called contract law.
Uniform Commercial Code: Contract Acceptance and Honor
If you don't understand contract law or realize what law you are dealing with when you go into court, you will lose. Even if you have filed your UCC-1 and have captured your Title and your artificial entity, this makes no difference in the above courts. Why? They operate in total fiction, in the land of Oz. They can only recognize contracts. And you are a real sentient being. (Still with numerous adhesion contracts attached to you). Whatever you file in that court, whether it is your UCC-1 or Law from the Judicial and Original Jurisdiction side, that is real, Lawful, truth. They do not recognize truth of any sort. They only recognize fiction and contract law. So, when you go into any court, be aware that it is their law, that the judge or the prosecutor can `construe' and `construct' that law in any fashion they choose. It will always mean what they choose it to mean.
So, are the courts bound by the Constitution? Law? Statutes? No, contracts only and the statutes used to enforce the contracts.
When used in conjunction with one's signature, a stamp stating "Without Prejudice U.C.C. 1-207" is sufficient to indicate to the magistrate of any of our present Legislative Tribunals (called "courts") that the signer of the document has reserved his Common Law right. He is not to be bound to the statute, or commercial obligation, of any commercial agreement that he did not enter knowingly, voluntarily, and intentionally, as would be the case in any Common Law contract.
Furthermore, pursuant to U.C.C. 1-103, the statute being enforced as a commercial obligation of a commercial agreement, must now be construed in harmony with the old Common Law of America, where the tribunal/court must rule that the statute does not apply to the individual who is wise enough and informed enough to exercise the remedy provided in this new system of law. He retains his former status in the Republic and fully enjoys his unalienable rights, guaranteed to him by the Constitution of the Republic, while those about him "curse the darkness" of Commercial Law government, lacking the truth needed to free themselves from a slave status under the Federal United States, even while inhabiting territory foreign to its territorial venue. Howard Freeman
Summary of Historical Development of Modern Feudalism
THE UNITED STATES as a corporation, created in England, came under the jurisdiction of England. This entitled England to create laws as England saw fit to do, establish those laws in THE UNITED STATES and everyone who at that time was a 14th Amendment Citizen were subject to obey those laws. This also placed the Congress of THE UNITED STATES above that portion of what we think is the constitution, not under the authority of the constitution. Copyrighted, remember? The only Bill of Rights left at this point in time is four Amendments -- 13th, 14th 15th, and 16th. That is all the Courts are required to take cognizance of when you appear in their courts.
The 1929 stock market crash and the Great Depression that followed placed the American people in desperation, homelessness, poverty and even starvation. The minds of the people were focused on survival. They were then in a condition to accept any handout given by the government, no matter what the cost to their freedoms.
We were drawn in as 14th Amendment Citizens through the registration of our birth certificates. We were further enticed deeper into that system by volunteering for many other licenses and privileges given by the government. We were also made enemies of THE UNITED STATES. This act gave the UNITED STATES authority, under the laws of war and as a captured people, to force anything on us they choose to create.
Then, in 1976, Congress removed any semblance of justice in our court system with Senate bill 94-201 and 94-381. From this point forward, the 'officers of the court' can construe and construct the laws to mean anything they chose them to mean.
As 14th Amendment Citizens, we are not citizens of the America we have always thought. We are actually citizens of England, through the corporation of THE UNITED STATES.
There is no law today except as fiction of copyrighted statutes, to be interpreted by 'judges' who construe and construct whatever they choose to have those statutes mean.
We, as sovereigns irresponsibly recognized the Crown of England (IMF) as PRINCIPLE of America. In reality, the IMF was the Creditor of the UNITED STATES, a corporation, but NEVER you. The Creditor of the UNITED STATES designed invisible contracts to ensnare the sovereign people of America as subjects. The Creditor of the UNITED STATES implemented the invisible contracts through apparent 'color of law' and the sovereigns irresponsibly agreed. We, as Sovereigns, through the invisible contracts, and our irresponsibility to reject the Creditors (IMF) ideas, have voluntarily given our substance to the mythical creator of our situation.
You'll find that there is a common thread woven throughout our entire history and that thread is commerce, the merchant, the money-changer (banks), the law merchant, i.e., the law of commerce, civil law and maritime law. This is not to say that commerce is bad. It does, however, say that commerce brings with it the laws of commerce. Wherever commerce goes it brings laws that can bind people into slavery. This can happen only if the people agree with it.
Banks create "money" today out of thin air; then, they charge, we, the people, interest on their creation. This can happen only if the people agree with it. Thereafter, the merchants and the bankers create laws, through lawmakers whom they control, that protect commerce and bind the people to obey. This can happen only if the people agree with it.
The only reason this occurs is that we do not handle our own affairs.
Me and My Shadow: the Fictional STRAWMAN
The elected and appointed administrators of government United States government have been filing certified copies of all our birth certificates in the United States Department of Commerce as registered securities. These securities, each of which carries an estimated $1,000,000 value, have been (and still are) circulated around the world as collateral for loans, entries on the asset side of ledgers, etc., just like any other security. There's just one problem—we didn't consciously authorize it. Now that you know, you can choose to let them use you for collateral and pay interest on the debt or you can take back your power and sovereignty.
The United States is a District of Columbia corporation. In Volume 20: Corpus Juris Sec. 1785 we find "The United States government is a foreign corporation with respect to a State" (NY re: Merriam 36 N.E. 505 1441 S. 0.1973, 14 L. Ed. 287). Since a corporation is a fictitious "person" (it cannot speak, see, touch, smell, etc.), it cannot, by itself, function in the real world. It needs a conduit, a transmitting utility, a liaison of some sort, to "connect" the fictitious person, and the fictional world in which it exists, to the real world. Why is this important?
LIVING people exist in a real world, not a fictional, virtual world. But government exists in a fictional world, and can only deal directly with other fictional or virtual persons, agencies, states, etc. In order for a fictional person to deal with real people there must be a connection, a liaison, a go-between. This can be something as simple as a contract. When both "persons", the real and fictional, agree to the terms of a contract, there is a connection, intercourse, dealings, there is communication, an exchange. There is business.
But there is another way for fictional government to deal with the real man and woman—through the use of a representative, a liaison, a go-between. Who is this go-between that connects fictional government to real men and women? It's a government-created shadow, a fictional man or woman, a corporation with the same name as yours.
This PERSON was created by using your birth certificate as the Manufacturer's Certificate of Origin (MCO) and the state in which you were born as the "port of entry." This gave fictional UNITED STATES government a fictional PERSON with whom to deal directly. This PERSON is a STRAWMAN.
STRAMINEUS HOMO: Latin - A man of straw, one of no substance, put forward as bail or surety. This definition comes from Black's Law Dictionary, 6th Edition, page 1421. Following the definition of STRAMINEUS HOMO in Black's we find the next word, STRAWMAN.
STRAWMAN: A front, a third party who is put up in name only to take part in a transaction. Nominal party to a transaction, one who acts as an agent for another for the purpose of taking title to real property and executing whatever documents and instruments the principal may direct. Person who purchases property for another to conceal identity of real purchaser or to accomplish some purpose otherwise allowed.
Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary defines the term "STRAWMAN" as "A weak or imaginary opposition set up only to be easily confuted; or a person set up to serve as a cover for a usually questionable transaction".
The STRAWMAN can be summed up as an imaginary, passive stand-in for the real participant; a front; a blind; a person regarded as a nonentity. The STRAWMAN is a "shadow", a go-between.
For quite some time a rather large number of people in this country have known that a man or woman's name, written in ALL CAPS, or last name first, does not identify real, living people. Taking this one step further, the rules of grammar for the English language have no provisions for the abbreviation of people's names, i.e. initials are not to be used. As an example, John Adam Smith is correct. ANYTHING else is not correct. Not Smith, John Adam or Smith, John A. or J. Smith or J.A. Smith or JOHN ADAM SMITH or SMITH, JOHN or any other variation. NOTHING, other than John Adam Smith identifies the real, living man. All other appellations identify either a deceased man or a fictitious man such as a corporation or a STRAWMAN.
Over the years, government, through its "public" school system, has managed to pull the wool over our eyes and keep us all ignorant of some very important facts. Because all facets of the media have an ever increasing influence in our lives, and because media is controlled (with the issuance of licenses, etc.) by government and its agencies, we have slowly and systematically been led to believe that any form/appellation of our name is, in fact, still us as long as the spelling is correct. This is not true.
We were never told, with full and open disclosure, what our government officials were planning to do ... and why. We were never told that government (the United States) was a corporation, a fictitious "person". We were never told that government had quietly, almost secretly, created a shadow corporation, a STRAWMAN for each and every American ... so that government could not only control the people, but also raise an almost unlimited amount of revenue; so it could continue, not just to exist, but to GROW.
We were never told that when government deals with the STRAWMAN it is not dealing with real, living men and women. We were never told, openly and clearly with full disclosure of all the facts, that since June 5, 1933, we have been unable to pay our debts. We were never told that we had been pledged (and our children, and their children, and their children) as collateral, mere chattel, for the debt created by government officials who created treason in doing so.
We were never told that they quietly and cleverly changed the rules, even the game itself, and that the world we perceive as real is in fact fictional - and its all for their benefit. We were never told that the STRAWMAN—a fictional person, a creature of THE STATE—is subject to all the codes, statutes, rules, regulations, ordinances, etc. decreed by government, but that WE, the real man and woman, are not. We were never told that we were being treated as property, as slaves, albeit comfortably for some, while living in the land of the free—and that we could, easily, walk away from the fraud. We never realized that we were being abused. By knowing the difference between our real self and our STRAWMAN and behaving accordingly, we regain our proper sovereignty over "legal fictions" and the ability to experience true freedom which is our birthright, for the enjoyment of the Divine in us all.
There's something else you should know: Everything, since June 1933, operates in COMMERCE. Why is this important? Commerce is based on agreement, on contract. Government has an implied agreement with the STRAWMAN which they created and the STRAWMAN is subject to government rule, as we illustrated above. But when we, the real flesh and blood man and woman, infer that they are trying to communicate with us and therefore step into their commercial "process" we become the "surety" for the fictional STRAWMAN. Reality and fiction are reversed. We then become liable for the debts, liabilities and obligations of the STRAWMAN, relinquishing our real (protected by the Constitution) character as we stand in for the fictional STRAWMAN.
So that we can once again place the STRAWMAN in the fictional world and keep ourselves in the real world (with all our "shields" in place against the fictional government) we must send a non-negotiable (private) "Charge Back" and a non-negotiable "Bill of Exchange" to the United States Secretary of the Treasury, along with a copy of our birth certificate, the evidence, the Manufacturer's Certificate of Origin of the STRAWMAN. By doing this we discharge our portion of the public debt, releasing us, the real man or woman, from the debts, liabilities and obligations of the STRAWMAN. Those debts, liabilities and obligations exist in the fictional commercial world of "book entries" on computers and/or in paper ledgers. It is a world of "digits" and "notes", not of money and substance. Property of the real man once again becomes tax exempt and free from levy.
Sending the non-negotiable Charge Back and Bill of Exchange accesses our Treasury Direct Account (TDA). What is our TDA? Title 26 USC section 163(h)(3)(B)(ii), $1,000,000 limitation: "The aggregate amount treated as acquisition indebtedness for any period shall not exceed $1,000,000 ($500,000 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return)."
This $1,000,000 account is for the STRAWMAN, the fictional "person" with the name in all caps and/or last name first. It is there for the purpose of making book entries, to move figures, "digits" from one side of ledgers to the other. Figures, digits, the entries in ledgers must move from asset side to debit side and back again, or commerce dies. No movement, no commerce.
The fictional persona of corporate government can only function in a functional commercial world, one where there is no real money, only fictional funds ... mere entries, figures, digits.
Corporate, STATE courts only have jurisdiction over the STRAWMAN. A presentment from fictional government—whether traffic citation or criminal charges—is a negative, commercial "claim" against the STRAWMAN. This "claim" takes place in the commercial, fictional world of government. "Digits" move from one side of your STRAWMAN account to the other, or to a different account. This is today's commerce. In the past we have addressed these "claims" by fighting them in court, with one "legal process" or another, and failed. We have played the futile, legalistic, charade—a very clever distraction—while the commerce game played on. We were playing checkers whereas the rules were MONOPOLY.
But what if we refused to continue playing the charade, and played the commerce game instead? What if we learned how to control the flow and movement of entries, figures and digits, for our own benefit? Is that possible? And if so, how? How can the real man in the real world, function in the fictional world in which the commerce game exists?
When in commerce do as commerce does - use the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC). The UCC-1 Financing Statement is the one contract in the world that CANNOT be broken and it's the foundation of the Accepted for Value process. The power of this document is awesome.
Since the TDA exists for the STRAWMAN - who, until now, has been controlled by the government - WE can gain control and ownership of the STRAWMAN by first activating the TDA and then filing a UCC-1 Financing Statement. This does two things for us.
First, by activating the TDA we gain limited control over the funds in the account. This allows us to also move entries, figures and digits ... for OUR benefit.
Secondly, by properly filing a UCC-1 Financing Statement we become the "holder in due course" of the STRAWMAN. A filed UCC-1 is public notice of a registered lien by a real human being who is the secured party, upon the STRAWMAN, the government-created, foreign non- registered corporation. With the STRAWMAN under our control, government has no access to the TDA and they also lose their go- between, their liaison, their connection to the real, living man and woman. No longer a subject, you become a free sovereign once again. You declare your independence!
From now on, when presented with any "claim" or presentment from government, you will agree with it. This removes the "controversy." And you "accept it for value." By doing this you remove the negative claim against your account and become the "holder in due course" of the presentment. As holder in due course you can require the sworn testimony of the presenter of the "claim" under penalty of perjury and request the account be properly adjusted.
You don't have liability for your STRAWMAN. If you do commercial assignments, you have an asset called a Bill of Exchange which you can spend out. The birth certificate represents the body. The SSN represents the commercial account. Behind every birth certificate is a $1,000,000 bond which is pre-paid financing on any activity of the STRAWMAN. Some people have used their TDA to pay off their home or commercial mortgage, bank or student loans, tax liens, or credit card debt..
When you own your STRAWMAN and anyone else charges against HIM, then that is commercial trespassing. If anyone goes after your STRAWMAN and wins any monetary award against the fiction of your STRAWMAN, then you (the real person/ secured party) get the first $1,000,000 of that because you have the first lien.
It's all business, a commercial undertaking, and the basic procedure is not complicated. In fact, it's fairly simple. We just have to remember a few things, like: this is not a "legal" procedure - we're not playing People's Court. This is commerce, and we play by the rules of commerce. We accept the "claim", become the holder in due course, and challenge whether or not the presenter of the "claim" had/has the proper authority, the Order, to make the claim (debit our account) in the first place. When they cannot produce the Order (they never can, it was never issued) we request the account be properly adjusted (the charge or claim goes away). Always Accept for Value, become the holder-in-due-course, and decide not to prosecute yourself! Are you getting used to this power yet?
If they don't adjust the account a request is made for the bookkeeping records showing where the funds in question were assigned. This is done by requesting the Fiduciary Tax Estimate and the Fiduciary Tax Return for this claim. Since the claim has been accepted for value and is pre-paid, and our TDA is exempt from levy, the request for the Fiduciary Tax Estimate and the Fiduciary Tax Return is valid because the information is necessary in determining who is delinquent and/or making claims on the account. If there is no record of the Fiduciary Tax Estimate and the Fiduciary Tax Return, we then request the individual tax estimates and individual tax returns to determine if there is delinquency.
If we receive no favorable response to the above requests, we will then file a currency report on the amount claimed/ assessed against our account and begin the commercial process that will force them either to do what is required or lose everything they own!
This is the power of contracts in commerce. A contract overrides the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and any other document other than another contract. No process of law—"color" of law under present codes, statutes, rules, regulations, ordinances, etc.—can operate upon you; no agent and/or agency of government, including courts, can gain jurisdiction over you, without your consent! You do not exist within their fictional commercial venue.
The Accepted for Value process gives you the ability to deal with "them," through the use of your transmitting utility/go-between, the STRAWMAN, and to hold them accountable in their own commercial world for any action(s) they attempt to take against us. Without a proper Order (and we know they're not in possession of such a document) they must leave us alone, or pay the consequences.
In addition to your own freedom reclaimed, you will remove your collateral and participation from the frauds, manipulations, and extortion that have been perpetrated in your name. When enough people have reclaimed their birthright, we can also reclaim our constitutional republic that was intended to serve us in protecting our life, liberty and pursuit of happiness.
There are a few errors you should know about:
(1) the "United States" was NOT incorporated as such in 1871, although D.C. was incorporated; D.C. and the "United States" are not one and the same; that Act did, however, expressly extend the entire U.S. Constitution into D.C.:
http://www.supremelaw.org/cc/gilberts/intentm3.filed.htm#1871 (that Act is also cited in Downes v. Bidwell)
And, in 1873, Congress expressly extended the U.S. Constitution into all federal territories:
We have coined the term "Extension Statutes" to refer to these two key Acts of Congress, the implications of which are now very far-reaching e.g. even federal municipal laws like IRC subtitle A can be ruled Void for Vagueness, pursuant to the Nature and Cause Clause in the Sixth Amendment.
We endeavored to litigate these Extension Statutes here, and in the Gilbertson case above:
(2) 28 U.S.C. 3002 does NOT create the "United States" as a corporation; it merely re-defines the term "United States" to embrace all previously existing federal corporations; it takes a lot more than that one subsection to create a federal corporation, e.g. see Act of Congress creating the Union Pacific Railroad Company for a good example:
That definition violates the Eisner Prohibition in Eisner v. Macomber; and, that definition is also a tautology (a NO NO in formal English grammar).
I have not reviewed the entire article in detail.
/s/ Paul Andrew Mitchell, B.A., M.S.
Private Attorney General, Criminal Investigator and
Federal Witness: 18 U.S.C. 1510, 1512-13, 1964(a)
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