Notes on Jurisdiction
[Ed. Note: this article may need editing for content, structure and reliability.] February, 24, 2008


Ecclesiastical jurisdiction

Exclusive jurisdiction.

Territorial jurisdiction

Personal jurisdiction

Subject Matter Jurisdiction

Ecclesiastical jurisdiction

Criminal jurisdiction

Federal jurisdiction

Summary jurisdiction

Inherent jurisdiction

Regular Masonic jurisdictions

Admiralty jurisdiction

Corporate jurisdiction

Constitutional jurisdiction

Criminal jurisdiction

Civil jurisdiction

Administrative jurisdiction

International jurisdiction

State jurisdiction

Federal jurisdiction
Limited jurisdiction.

Pendent jurisdiction

Ancillary jurisdiction

Removal jurisdiction

Pendent jurisdiction

Territorial jurisdiction

Diversity jurisdiction

Universal jurisdiction

Territorial jurisdiction

Extraterritorial jurisdiction

General jurisdiction

Bankruptcy jurisdiction

Original jurisdiction

LEA’s jurisdiction

Temporal jurisdiction

Nature of jurisdiction

To start to under stand the law.

The hardest problem is how do you explain to some one that codes, statutes, and regulation do not apply to you, as a citizen. How do you explain that these items are copyrighted? Anything that has a copyright is private. The Constitution has never been copyrighted, which made it public law. All enacted law has been copyrighted. Therefore that makes them private laws. So those so call laws only apply to them who fall under definition of Private laws artificial persons, Corporation, Agency, Govt., and etc. (read definition above of private law)

The first thing people are going to say is that we need laws. There is no argument on those issues. The argument is they are passing off private law to be public laws. This is why you cannot practice law in their courts by using their codes because these codes are copyrighted. Unless you have one of their licenses, you can be charged for practicing law without a license. This is why the challenge of subject matter jurisdiction or nature and cause has to be place into the court from the very beginning. This is also why you have to have a full understanding of what you are doing. This is not and undertaken that you go half way in on. You need to comprehend that this is your freedom and the freedom of others. Once you start down this road you need to finish the trip win, lose, or draw. The more people that teach this the sooner this road trip well be easier for all. If you think for one minute that some one else needs to due this then you have already lost. You need to remember you are the one who was stopped not some one else. You are the one who could go to jail .pay fine, court cost, suspension, probation, peonage, or even lose your job because of these private laws being used against you. Once you understand how this works you well kick your self. There has been a lot of research that when in to this and a lot of trail and error to fine their weakness. Have we found it yes? Is there a perfect way of doing this? Yes there is. That is for you to have the knowledge and understanding of the laws and how they apply to you. The sooner you and other learn the sooner we can hold these people accountable for their action. Failure to up hold that oath of office is an act of treason and they can be hold and charged for it. You can file a complaint and charges to the Committee on the Judiciary in Washington DC. [U.S. Constitution Article 3 section 1 & 3 and Ohio Constitution Article 1 section 2.]

1at Law,

2 in Equity,

3 in Admiralty:

(l) Law is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defence. It is the will of the majority, the organization of the natural right of lawful defence. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces, to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign over us all. Since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force -- for the same reason -- cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups. Law allows you to do anything you want to, as long as you don't infringe upon the life, liberty or property of anyone else. Law does not compel performance. Today's so-called laws (ordinances, statutes, acts, regulations, orders, precepts, etc.) are often erroneously perceived as law, but just because something is called a "law" does not necessarily make it a law. [There is a difference between "legal" and "lawful." Anything the government does is legal, but it may not be lawful.]

(2) Equity is the jurisdiction of compelled performance (for any contract you are a party to) and is based on what is fair in a particular situation. The term "equity" denotes the spirit and habit of fairness, justness, and right dealing which would regulate the intercourse of men with men. You have no rights other than what is specified in your contract. Equity has no criminal aspects to it.

(3) Admiralty is compelled performance plus a criminal penalty, a civil contract with a criminal penalty

Constitution VI

In all criminal prosecution, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trail, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense


As shown by Western Union Tel. Co. v. Andrews, Hastings v. Selby Oil & Gas Co. and Peters v. Veasey, the Nature of the accusation is the type of law where a violation could occur. There are many types of law, which have their own rules of procedure.

Just some of the Laws that could be stated as the Nature of an accusation could be as follows:

Administrative Law - Antitrust & Trade Law - Banking Law - Bankruptcy Law - Civil Rights Law - Commercial Law - Common Law - Communications Law - Constitutional Law - Contract Law - Corporation & Enterprise Law - Criminal Law - Cyberspace Law - Dispute Resolution & Arbitration Law - Education Law - Entertainment & Sports Law - Environmental Law - Ethics & Professional Responsibility Law - Family Law - Government Benefits Law - Government Contract Law - Health Law - Immigration Law - Indian Law - Injury and Tort Law - Intellectual Property Law - International Law - International Trade Law - Labor & Employment Law - Probate Law - Trusts & Estates Law - Property Law - Real Estate Law - Securities Law - Tax Law - Admiralty Law - Maritime Law.

Click in to these definition of word read them understand them. This is where we lack in knowledge. We lack knowing their meaning on words.

Administrative law - Admiralty - Alternative dispute resolution - Appellate review - Brehon Laws - Civil procedure - Civil rights - Commercial law - Comparative law - Consuetudinary law - Contracts - Constitutional law - Courts of England and Wales - Corporations law - Criminal law - Criminal procedure - Election law - Environmental law - Equity - Evidence - Family law - Fiduciary - Human rights - Immigration - Intellectual property - Jurisprudence - Law and economics - Agency - Law of Obligations - Labor law - Land use - List of items for which possession is restricted- Military law - Philosophy of law - Practice of law - Private law- Procedural law - Property law - Public Health law - Public Law - Religious law - Statutory law - Tax law - Technology law - Torts - Trusts and estates - Cyber law -Water law


The Accused request the Nature of the accusation as by the type of Law that was violated.


The Cause of the accusation is the law, rule, code, ordinance, statute, regulation, policy, or by which means the prosecutor can find remedy of the action.

The Accused request information from the prosecutor for the Cause of the Action.

A mere statement of the Charge is vague and does not show all elements of the charge so that an actual defence of the true charges can be administered.

The Accused request the Nature and Cause of the Accusation(s) from the Prosecutor before jurisdiction can be established

As shown by Nyanza S.S. Co. v. Jahncke Dry Dock No. 1 and Robertson v. Chambers, there is a distinct difference between the Nature and the Cause of the accusation.

NYANZA S S CO. v. JAHNCKE DRY DOCK NO 1, 264 U.S. 439 (1924)

"And the judgment must be, not only in its nature final, but a complete disposition of the cause."

Cause that which effects a result.169 F.2d 203,206. In law “cause” is not a constant and agreed-upon term.

Public laws

Constitutional law - common law -

Public law is the area of the law governing the relationship between individuals (citizens, companies) and the state. Constitutional law, administrative law and criminal law are thus all sub-divisions of public law.

Generally speaking private law is the area of law in a society that effects the relationships between individuals or groups without the intervention of the state or government. In many cases the public/private law distinction is confounded by laws that regulate private relations while having been passed by legislative enactment. In some cases these public statutes are known as laws of public order, as private individuals do not have the right to break them and any attempt to circumvent such laws are void as against public policy

Copyright Laws /Private law

Private law has there our definition of how the words are defined.

Private law is that part of a legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals such as the law of contract or torts as it is called in the common law and the law of obligations as it is called in civilian legal systems. It is to be distinguished from public law which deals with relationships between natural and artificial persons (i.e., individuals, business entities, non-profit organizations) and the state including regulatory statutes. penal law and other law that effects the public order.

Positive law

Positive law Is law by Presidential proclamation known as executive orders. However there is limitation to this U.S. Constitution Article 2 section 2 is where it lies.

Each Title that has been passed into positive law records and indicates such passage within the Title itself. All persons living under the laws of the United States are bound by the "positive" laws in the Titles of the U.S. Code, whereas those Titles that are not passed into positive law are limited in application to specific classes of persons and places because the Federal government DOES NOT HAVE CRIMINAL JURISDICTION OVER ALL PEOPLE (SOVEREIGNS) or places (STATES), for ALL matters. Title 26, the Title containing the I.R. Code, HAS NEVER BEEN PASSED INTO POSITIVE LAW and therefore DOES NOT APPLY TO ALL PEOPLE. Who does this Title actually apply to then, if NOT all people?

Sec. 7343. Definition of the term "person".

The term "person" as used in this chapter includes an officer or employee of a corporation, or a member or employee of a partnership, who as such officer, employee or member is under a duty to perform the act in respect of which the violation occurs.

The legal definition Title 26, Section 7701-a-16. (Section 7701 is entitled Definitions) It States

(30). United States person. - The term "United States person" means-
(A) a citizen or resident of the United States,
(B) a domestic partnership
(C) a domestic corporation, and
(D) any estate or trust (other than a foreign estate or foreign trust, within the
meaning of section 7701(a)(31)).

44 U.S.C. § 1505. Documents to be published in Federal Register

(a) Proclamations and Executive Orders; Documents Having General applicability and Legal Effect; Documents Required To Be Published by Congress. There shall be published in the Federal Register -

Presidential proclamations and Executive orders, except those not having general applicability and legal effect or effective only against Federal agencies or persons in their capacity as officers, agents, or employees thereof;
(2) documents or classes of documents that the President may determine from time to time have general applicability and legal effect; and
(3) documents or classes of documents that may be required so to be published by Act of Congress. For the purposes of this chapter every document or order, which prescribes a penalty, has general applicability and legal effect. (Emphasis added)

Basically this section provides that before ANY ACT OF GOVERNMENT becomes binding on ALL PERSONS in the nation, it must first be (PASSED INTO POSITIVE LAW, and then) PUBLISHED in the Federal Register. Title 26 has NEVER been passed into positive law, nor have many of its associated regulations ever been printed in the Federal Register, therefore TITLE 26 CANNOT APPLY TO ANYONE EXCEPT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES as provided for in 44 USC 1505. Are you a Federal Employee? Would you like to see what has been published in the Federal Register regarding Title 26 Section 1? How's this:

ONLY POSITIVE LAWS have general applicability to everyone in America. ALL positive laws must appear in the Federal Register before it can be deemed that the general public has been placed on notice about a law, according to which they must control their conduct, and under which, they may be subsequently charged.

Title 18 - Federal Crimes

This can be confirmed if one reviews Title 18, Federal Crimes. ALL crimes against the United States are spelled out in Title 18 (Chapters 1 through 121). In order to be a legitimate, lawful, and valid (Constitutional) criminal charge by the Federal Government against an individual, the violation of the laws in the other Titles must be linked to a crime listed and spelled out in Title 18. THERE IS NO SUCH LINK FOR ALLEGED TITLE 26 VIOLATIONS..

It is a fact that there are only THREE Federal Crimes provided for in the Constitution: treason, piracy and counterfeiting. The Interstate Commerce Act has been used to expand the authority of the Federal government over inter-state activities, BUT TITLE 26 CHARGES DO NOT RELATE TO INTERSTATE ACTIVITIES. YOU CANNOT BE LEGALLY CHARGED OR TRIED IN A FEDERAL COURT BECAUSE THEY HAVE NO CRIMINAL JURISDICTION OVER YOU BECAUSE NO FEDERAL CRIME IN TITLE 18 HAS BEEN COMMITTED. YOU ARE NOT A FEDERAL EMPLOYEE AND TITLE 26 HAS NEVER BEEN PASSED INTO POSITIVE LAW OR PUBLISHED IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER, therefore it does not legally apply to you. YOU CANNOT BE TRIED LEGALLY OR LEGITIMATELY BY A FEDERAL COURT FOR THIS CHARGE.


Venue deals with the place where that power should be exercised. Jurisdiction over the subject matter cannot be conferred by the parties, and lack thereof may not be waived. Venue, on the other hand, is bottomed on convenience, and improper venue may be waived,’ Green Civil Procedure 64(2d ed 1979) Venve”is the right of the party sued to have the action brought and heard in a particular judicial district.


Jurisdiction lies in so many areas such as municipalities, county, state, (not STATE) and Federal jurisdiction

Jurisdiction also lies on where the money comes from, whether these corporations receive federal funding or is the funding by local means. This also set the jurisdiction. Who stop you and where also set jurisdiction whether local police, county sheriff, or states police their oath of office set their jurisdiction. Jurisdiction also lies white what laws (codes, statutes, regulations) are being used against you in the court. The flag in the courtroom set another jurisdiction. By the action of Dwight D. Eisenhower the Courts became Admiralty, by the Flag that is flown in their courtrooms (Executive Order No. 10834, August 21, 1959, 24 F.R. 6865,)

The CFR Title 20 section 436.110 shows (a) that the Federal Government is to ensure integrity of federal programs by conducting business only with responsible person. ( The statement means that the public official are required to meet the obligation of contract to hold positions in office.)

Sec. 2000d-7. - Civil rights remedies equalization
(a) General provision
A State shall not be immune under the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution of the United States from suit in Federal court for a violation of section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794), title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.), the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.), title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.), or the provisions of any other Federal statute prohibiting discrimination by recipients of Federal financial assistance.
In a suit against a State for a violation of a statute referred to in paragraph (1), remedies (including remedies both at law and in equity) are available for such a violation to the same extent as such remedies are available for such a violation in the suit against any public or private entity other than a State.
(b) Effective date
The provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall take effect with respect to violations that occur in whole or in part after October 21, 1986

1206.1 Scope
This part establishes procedures governing determinations to invoke the sanctions applicable to any State that does not comply with the highway safety program requirements in the Highway Safety Act of 1966, as amended (23 U.S.C. 402

 CITE: 23CFR1250.4
Sec. 1250.4 Determining local share.




Administrative law

Administrative law is the body of law which regulates the actions (such as rulemaking) of administrative agencies of government. It is a considered a branch of public law. Administrative law as a body of law deals with the decision-making of administrative tribunals or boards that are part of a state regulatory scheme in the areas of international trade, manufacturing, the environment, taxation, broadcasting, immigration and transportation to name a few areas of regulation.


AFFIDAVIT:A written or printed declaration or statement of facts, made voluntarily, and confirmed by the oath or affirmation of the party making it, taken before an officer having authority to administer such oath.

ARRAIGNMENT:The process of taking a defendant before a magistrate where he is notified of the charges against him and advised of his constitutional rights. Sometimes the bond amount is set at arraignment.

BENCH TRIAL:Trial in which judgment is decided by means of a judge rather than a jury.

BOND: A certificate or evidence of a debt. The written promise of the secured party to pay the required amount in cash or forfeit the secured property if the defendant fails to appear for hearing.  May be personal cash bond or surety bond.

COMPLAINT:In civil practice. In those states having a Code of Civil Procedure, the complaint is the first or initiatory pleading on the part of the plaintiff in a civil action. It corresponds to the declaration in the common law practice. Its purpose is to give defendant information of all material facts on which plaintiff relies to support his demand.

COUNTY ATTORNEY: The County Attorney is the State’s prosecutor for misdemeanor charges.

COURT: An organ of the government, belonging to the judicial department, whose function is the application of the laws to controversies brought before it and the public administration of justice.

DEFENDANT: The person defending or denying; the party against whom relief or recovery is sought in an action or suit. The formal name given to a person charged with an offense for which  there are proceedings pending.

DEFENSE: That which is offered and alleged by the party proceeded against in an action or suit, as a reason in law or fact why the plaintiff should not recover or establish what he seeks; what is put forward to diminish plaintiff’s cause of action or defeat recovery.

DISTRICT ATTORNEY: The State’s prosecutor for felony charges.

DEFERRED ADJUDICATION: After a defendant enters a plea of guilty to the court, the judge may defer (postpone) the actual finding of guilt and place the defendant on a probationary term up to two years. During this time, the defendant abides by the same probation rules as a regular probationer, and if there are no infractions during the probation term, the case will then be dismissed without the defendant ever having been found guilty of the offense. If the defendant violates the terms of probation, then the case is placed back on the docket as if the probationary term never existed. The defendant is then “adjudicated” or found guilty and the full range of punishment can be considered.

EVIDENCE: Any species of proof, or  probative matter, legally presented at the trial of an issue, by the act of the parties and through the medium of witnesses, records, documents, concrete objects, etc., for the purpose of inducing belief in the minds of the court or jury as to their contention.

FELONY: A crime of a graver or more atrocious nature than those designated as misdemeanors. Generally an offense punishable by death or imprisonment in penitentiary.

FUGITIVE FROM JUSTICE: An individual charged with a crime committed in another state who is arrested on that warrant.

GRAND JURY: A 12-member panel which meets in secret to consider evidence in certain matters. Witnesses are questioned inside GJ chambers with no defense attorneys present. Every Grand Juror may ask questions of the witness.

GUILTY:  Having committed a crime or tort; the word used by a prisoner in pleading to an indictment when he confesses the crime of which he is charged, and by the jury in convicting.

HEARING: Proceeding of relative formality, generally public, with definite issues of fact or of law to be tried, in which parties proceeded against have right to be heard, and is much the same as a trial and may terminate in final order.

INDICTMENT: An accusation in writing found and presented by a grand jury, legally convoked and sworn, to the court in which it is impaneled, charging that a person therein named has done some act, or been guilty of some omission, which, by law is a public offense punishable on indictment.

JURISDICTION: Having the capability to prosecute a case in a certain county or district.

JURY: In practice. A certain number of individuals selected according to law, and sworn to inquire of certain matters of fact, and declare the truth upon evidence to be laid before them.

MISDEMEANOR: Offenses lower than felonies and generally those punishable by fine or imprisonment otherwise than in penitentiary.

PAROLE: In criminal law. A conditional release; condition being that, if prisoner makes good, he will receive an absolute discharge from balance of sentence, but, if he does not, he will returned to serve unexpired time.

PENAL CODE: The written set of criminal laws enacted by legislature, the elements making up the offenses, and the punishment for crimes.

PERSONAL RECOGNIZANCE BOND: A personal assurance made by a defendant to appear before all future hearings. Failure to appear could result in further prosecution or incarceration.

PETIT JURY: A six or twelve member panel which meet in a public forum to hear evidence presented by adversarial parties, decide the merits of the case and possibly to decide a punishment in a criminal case or award damages in a civil case. Jury members cannot ask questions.

PLAINTIFF: A person who brings an action; the party who complains or sues in a personal action and is so named on the record.

PLEA: A pleading; any one in the series of pleadings. More particularly, the first pleading on the part of the defendant. In the strictest sense, the answer which the defendant in an action at law makes to the plaintiff’s declaration, and in which he sets up matter of fact as defense, thus distinguished from a demurrer, which interposes objections on grounds of law.

PLEA BARGAIN: Pretrial negotiations in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a lesser charge if more serious charges are dropped.

PROBATION: The term used when a defendant, after having been found guilty of a criminal offense, is granted a “suspension” of his punishment and is placed under supervision by probation officers. Probation is granted to a defendant receiving less than 10 years punishment which is then suspended based upon the defendant’s promise to abide by certain regulations. A defendant granted probation may never go to the penitentiary.

PROSECUTOR: One who prosecutes another for a crime in the name of the government; one who instigates a prosecution by making affidavit charging a named person with the commission of a penal offense on which a warrant is issued or an indictment or accusation is based.

VENUE: The county or counties in which an offense occurred or prosecution is taking place.

WARRANT: A writ or precept from competent authority in pursuance of law, directing the doing of an act, and addressed to an officer or person competent to do the act, and affording him protection from damage if he does it.

WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS: The remedy used by a person who is incarcerated or restrained in his liberty and petitions the court to hear evidence as to the legality of his incarceration or restraint (in the hopes of being released). Literally, “Bring the Body”

Judgement on affidavit needs to be filed. This is an affidavit that is filed by the police officer into the courts. It is to be notarized by a notary and file into the court. This is the first step to challenge. If this is wrong it all wrong from the start. This starts your paper trail. (U.S. Constitution amendment IV)

Subject Matter Jurisdiction or Nature and Cause challenge.The courts need to be challenge on the law. What law are they using? The courts by their own Rule of Law are required to disclosure this information. If you fail to challenge this and ask for this as part of the disclosure you come under their jurisdiction because you fail to challenge this. Any failure for the court to disclosure after this challenge is made is failure of due process lack of subject matter jurisdiction on their part.

The charges that you are charged with are not the issues here. Don’t let the courts side track you in the courtroom. The courts are required to answer you challenge on this. They will do what ever they need to do to get you off of this line of questioning. The courts more and likely will not answer this question put to them. But will do everything they can to get you off this subject. Because they know they have only two choices to make and that to dismiss or overrule.

If they dismiss you won. If they overrule you need to stay on point. The subject has not changed. The Appeal Court will have to answer the challenge that the lower court had Subject Matter. Remember it is not up to you to explain to the Appeal Court or any court why the lower does not have Subject Matter. It is up to the Appeal Courts to prove that they did have it. Do not allow them to change the direction of the topic. The court by their Rule of law is required to answer this challenge. They have to prove their side why those that stop you and charge you had the right to do so. When the court states that this is public policy that is Corporate law and Private law not Public law. (Remember one thing here you need to have a Notice of Appeal and a Stay of Judgement with you to be file.)

The Municipal Court only has jurisdiction over violation on city ordinances therefore the charges are to be brought under that municipality not the State. When charges are brought in the name of the State federal guideline apply because federal funding is now involved. You have the right to challenge on this issues.

Challenge their authority and jurisdiction by. Challenge their oath of office makes them proves that they have the proper document to hold that office. Challenge if federal fund is involved because the State has vested interest in it now. Challenge that the court is using a fictitious plaintiff. Because if they us all caps for the state that is a corporation bring charges not the state (Ohio Constitution Article IV section 20). Challenge the courts to provide any document that prove that you are a corporation and that you come under their private laws.


You have the right to challenge them and make them prove their case. Before you can do any of this you will have to gain the knowledge. You have to be able to take this challenge to protect your freedom and all others. Remember that the relationships between natural person and artificial persons are the different between a citizen and a public servant or a corporation. We are not a corporation. This is not going to be an easy battle. Until you get your understand and know the differents and gain the understanding of what is being done and know the different between public law and all the rest of the so called laws. We cannot challenge the courts on these ground with the lack or no understand of these different. The more we start to under stand and the more people that is willing to start challenge on this level the sooner we can stop this corruption in the system. The sooner we also can start holding them accountable.

NOTICE: If anything in this presentation is found to be in error a good faith effort will be made to correct it in timely fashion upon notification.
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